Reading about Digital Holocaust Memory

I have the great honour this summer to work with students on the University of Haifa’s MA in Holocaust Studies . Below is some of the reading I suggest to students who are interested in pursuing research in this area. Hyperlinks go to available online resources, they are mostly only available with a university login unfortunately. This list will keep being updated iteratively.

Thank you to Mykola Makhortykh for suggestions via Facebook and to Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann for further sources, and Filomena Lopedoto and Clarissa Ceglio who shared resources via the Holocaust and Computer Games Discord Server. These have now been incorporated into the list. Let’s keep this generative – I welcome further recommendations with links in the comments section at the bottom of this post.

Holocaust Museums, Memory, Education and the Digital

Baum, R. N (2012) ‘Holograms, Simulations and Augmented Reality: Holocaust Testimony in Digital Spaces’. Unpublished Paper presented at the Future of Holocaust Studies Conference. Southampton and Winchester Universities

Blanke, Tobias, Michael Bryant and Mark Hedges (2019) ‘Understanding memories of the Holocaust – A new approach to neural networks in the digital humanities’, Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 01/08/2019

Brown, Adam and Deb Waterhouse-Watson (2014) ‘The Future of the Past: Digital Media in Holocaust Museums’, Holocaust Studies 20 (3), pp. 1-32

Chronakis, Paris Papamichos (2018) ‘From the Lone Survivor to the Networked Self: Social Networks Meet the Digital Holocaust Archive’, Quest: Issues in Contemporary Jewish History (13) [This entire edition of Quest is a special on the digital and the Holocaust]

Fanning, J. “Going Online: Supporting Classroom Teaching and Learning about the Holocaust”. Paper presented at The Future of Holocaust Studies Conference, University of Southampton, 2013

Frosh, Paul (2018) ‘’The mouse, the screen and the Holocaust Witness: Interface aesthetics and moral responses’, New Media and Society 20 (1), pp. 351-368

Gray, M. “The Digital Era of Holocaust Education,” in Contemporary Debates in Holocaust Education, 99-114. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014

Hartman, Geoffrey (2001) ‘Tele-Suffering and Testimony in the Dot Com Era’, in Visual Culture and the Holocaust ed Barbie Zelizer, London: the Athlone Press

Hoskins, Andrew (2003) ‘Signs of the Holocaust: Exhibiting Memory in a Mediated Age’, Media, Culture and Society, 25 (1), pp. 7-22

Kansteiner (2017) ‘Transnational Holocaust Memory, Digital Culture and the End of Reception Studies’, The Twentieth Century in European Memory: Trasnscultural Mediation and Reception, Leiden and Boston: Brill

Kansteiner, Wulf (2014) ‘Genocide Memory, Digital Cultures, and the Aesthetization of Violence’, Memory Studies 7 (4), pp. 403-8

Manca, Stefania (2021) ‘Digital Memory in the Post-Witness Era: How Holocaust Museums Use Social Media as New Memory Ecologies’, Information 12 (31)

Manfra, M. M., and J.D. Stoddard “Media and Strategies for Teaching about Genocide and the Holocaust,” Social Studies 99, iss. 6 (2008): 260-4

Presner, Todd (2016) ‘The Ethics of the Algorthim: Close and Distant Listening to the Shoah Foundation Visual History Archive’ in Probing the Ethics of Holocaust Culture ed Claudio Fogu, Wulf Kansteiner and Todd Presner, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press

Quest: Issues in Contemporary Jewish History (2018) special edition: ‘Holocaust Archives and Research in the Digital Age’

Reading, Anna (2003) ‘Digital Interactivity in Public Memory Institutions: The Uses of New Technologies in Holocaust Museums’, Media, Culture and Society 25 (1), pp. 67-85

Shandler, Jeffrey (2017) Holocaust Memory in the Digital Age: Survivors’ Stories and New Media Practices, Stanford: Stanford University Press

Shapiro, A., B. McDonald, and A. Johnston “Gathering the Voices: Disseminating the Message of the Holocaust for the Digital Generation by Applying an Interdisciplinary Approach,” Social Sciences 3 (2014): 499-513

Traum, D. et al (2015) ‘New Dimensions in Testimony: Digitally Preserving a Holocaust Survivor’s Interactive Storytelling’, H. Schoenau-Fog et al (eds.) ICIDS 2015, pp. 269-81

Trezie, Bryoni (2011) ‘Touching Virtual Trauma: Performative Empathies in Second Life’, Memory Studies 5 (4), pp. 392-409

Walden, Victoria Grace (2019) ‘Digital Augmentation, Assemblage and the Actual and the Virtual’ and ‘Epilogue’ in Cinematic Intermedialities and Contemporary Holocaust Memory, London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Walden, Victoria Grace (2019) ‘What is Virtual Holocaust Memory?’ Memory Studies [online first]

Walden, Victoria Grace [ongoing] www.digitalholocaustmemory.com (always welcomes guest blogs that thinking critically and academically about digital Holocaust memory projects).

Zalewska, M. (2016) ‘Holography, Historical Indexicality, and the Holocaust’, Spectator 36 (1): 25-32

Zungri, Julia (2017) ‘Digital Media and Holocaust Museums in a Post-Survivor Era’, The iJournal 2 (2): 1-7

Holocaust Memory and Social Media

Bareither, Christoph (2020) ‘Difficult Heritage and Digital Media: ‘Selfie Culture’ and Emotional Practices at the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, [online first]

Bothe, Alina (2014) ‘Negotiationg Digital Shoah Memory on YouTube, in Digital Diversities: Social Media and Intercultural Experience eds. Gary Robson, Malgorzata Zachara and Agnieszka Stasiewicz-Bieńkowska, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 256-72

Commane, Gemma and Rebekah Potton (2018) ‘Instagrm and Auschwitz: A Critical Assessment of the Impact Social Media has on Holocauts Representation’, Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History 25 (1-2), pp. 158-181

de Bruyn, Dieter (2010) ‘World War 2.0: Commemorating War and Holocaust in Poland through Facebook’, Digital Icons: Studies in Russian, Eurasian and Central European New Media 4, pp. 45-62

Lundrigan, Meghan (2020) ‘#Holocaust #Auschwitz: Performing Holocaust Memory on Social Media’, in A Companion to the Holocaust edted by Simone Gigliotti and Hilary Earl, Hoboken NJ and Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley

Makhortykh, Mykola (2019) ‘Nuturing the Pain: Audiovisual Tributes to the Holocaust on YouTube’, Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History 25 (4), pp. 441-66

Makhortykh, Mykola (2017) ‘Framing the Holocaust Online: Memory of the Babi Yar Massacres on Wikipedia’, Digital Icons: Studies in Russian, Eurasian and Central European New Media 18, pp.67-94

Makhortykh, Mykola (2017) ‘War Memories and Online Encyclopedias: Framing 30 June 1941 in Wikipedia, Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society 9 (2), pp. 40-68

Manca, Stefania (2021) ‘Digital Memory in the Post-Witness Era: How Holocaust Museums Use Social Media as New Memory Ecologies’, Information 12 (31)

Manca, Stefania (2021) ‘Bridging Cultural Studies and Learning Sciences: An Investigation of Social Media Use for Holocaust Memory and Education in the Digital Age’, Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies 

Menyhért, Anna (2017) ‘Digital Trauma Processing in Social Media Groups: Transgenerational Holocaust Trauma on Facebook’, The Hungariam Historical Review 6 (2), pp. 355-376

Pfanzelter, Eva (2015) ‘At the crossroads with public history: mediating the Holocaust on the Internet’, Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History 21 (4), pp. 250-71

Schankweiler, Kerstin and Verena Straub and Tobias Wendl (eds.) (2019) Image Testimonies: Witnessing in Times of Social Media, London and New York: Routledge

Walden, Victoria Grace (2015) ‘New Ethical Questions and Social Media: Young People’s Construction of Holocaust Memory Online’, Frames Cinema Journal

Wolniewicz-Slomka, Daniel (2016) ‘Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia’, Adeptus 8, pp. 30-49

Zalewska, Maria (2017) ‘Selfies from Auschwitz: Rethinking the Relationship Between Spaces of Memory and Places of Commemoration in the Digital Age’, Digital Icons: Studies in Russian, Eurasian and Central European New Media 18, pp. 95-116.

Digital Memory and Media Witnessing

Boltanski, Luc (1999) Distant Suffering: Morality, Media and Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Ellis, John (2012) Documentary: Witness and Self-revelation, London: Routledge.

Ernst, Wolfgang (2013) ‘Part II: Temporality and the Multimedial Archive’, in Digital Memory and the Archive, Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press

Frosh, Paul and Amit Pinchevski (2011) ‘Introduction: Why Media Witnessing? Why Now?’ in Media Witnessing: Testimony in the Age of Mass Communication ed. Frosh and Pinchevski, London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Frosh, Paul (2018) ‘The mouse, the screen and the Holocaust witness: Interface aesthetics and moral response. New Media & Society 20 (1): 351-68

Frosh, Paul and Amit Pinchevski (2011) Media Witnessing: Testimony in the Age of Mass Communication

Hoskins, Andrew (2018) ‘Memory of the multitude: the end of collective memory’, in Digital Memory Studies: Media Pasts in Transition ed Andrew Hoskins, New York and London: Routledge

Hoskins, Andrew (2016) ‘Memory ecologies’, Memory Studies 9 (3), pp. 348-357

Hoskins, Andrew (2013) ‘The end of decay time’, Memory Studies 6 (3), p. 387-389

Hoskins, Andrew (2011) ‘Media, Memory, Metaphor: Remembering the Collective Turn, Parallax 17 (4), pp. 19-31

Garde-Hansen, Joanne (2009) ‘MyMemories?: Personal Digital Archive Fever and Facebook, in Save As … Digital Memories ed Joanna Garde-Hansen, Andrew Hoskins and Anna Reading, London and New York: Palgrave

Parikka, Jussi (2018) ‘The underpinning time: from digital memory to network microtemporality’, in Digital Memory Studies: Media Pasts in Transition ed Andrew Hoskins, New York and London: Routledge

Pentzold, Christian and Vivien Sommer (2011) ‘Digital Networked Media and Social Memory: Theoretical Foundations and Implications’, Aurora. Revista de Arte, Midia e Politica 10, pp. 72-85

Peters, John Durham (2011) ‘Witnessing’ in Media Witnessing: Testimony in the Age of Mass Communication ed. Frosh and Pinchevski, London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Pinchevski, Amit (2019) Transmitted Wounds: Media and the Mediation of Trauma, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Reading, Anna (2009) ‘The Globytal: Towards an Understanding of Globalised Memories in the Digital Age’, in Digital Memories: Exploring Critical Issues eds. Anna Maj and Daniel Riha, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 31-40

Reading, Anna (2009) ‘Memobilia: The Mobile Phone and the Emergence of Wearable Memories’ in Save As … Digital Memories ed Joanna Garde-Hansen, Andrew Hoskins and Anna Reading, London and New York: Palgrave

Reading, Anna (2011) ‘Memory and Digital Media: Six Dynamics of the Globital Memory Field’, in On Media Memory: Collective Memory in a New Media Age ed Motti Neiger, Oren Meyers and Eyal Zandberg, London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Torchin, Leshu (2012) Creating the Witness: Documenting Genocide on Film, Video, and the Internet. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press

Van Dijck, José (2007) Mediated Memories in the Digital Age, Stanford: Stanford University Press

Wilson, Shaun (2009) ‘Remixing Memory in Digital Media’, in Save As … Digital Memories ed Joanna Garde-Hansen, Andrew Hoskins and Anna Reading, London and New York: Palgrave

Critical Digital Media Studies

Bared, Karen (2007) Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning, Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Bell, David and Barbara M. Kennedy (eds.) (2000) The Cyberculture Reader. London and New York: Routledge

Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin (2000) ‘I Theory’, in Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge MA and London: The MIT Press

Braidotti, Rosi (2013) The Posthuman, Cambridge and Malden, Polity

Castells, Manuel (2000) ‘Toward a Sociology of the Network Society’, Contemporary Sociology 29 (5), pp. 693-699

Cubbit, Sean (1998) Digital Aesthetics, London: Sage Publications

Drushel, Bruce E. and Kathleen German (eds) (2011) The Ethics of Emerging Media: Information, Social Norms, and New Technology, New York and London: Continuum

Friedberg, Anna (2006) The Virtual Window: From Alberti to Microsoft, London, UK and Cambridge, MASS: The MIT Press

Frosh, Paul (2019) The Poetics of Digital Media, Cambridge, UK and Medford, MA: Polity

Fuchs, C. (2014) Social Media: A Critical Introduction, London: Sage

Hansen, Mark B (2015) Feed-Forward: On the Future of Twenty-First-Century Media, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press

Hansen, Mark B (2006) Bodies in Code: Interfaces with Digital Media, New York and London: Routledge

Hansen, Mark B (2004) New Philosophy for New Media, Cambridge MA and London: The MIT Press

Haraway, Donna (2006) ‘A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late 20th Century, in The International Handbook of Virtual Learning environments ed J Weiss, J Nolan and P Trifonas, Dordrecht: Springer

Kember, Sarah and Joanna Zylinska (2012) Life After New Media: Mediation as a Vital Process, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press

Manovich, Lev (2013) Software Takes Command, New York and London: Bloomsbury

Manovich, Lev (2001) ‘What is New Media?’ in The Language of New Media, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press

McLuhan, Marshall (1964) Understanding Media: The Extension of Man, London and New York: Routledge

Wood, Aylisha (2007) Digital Encounters, New York and London: Routledge

Zielinski, Siegfried (2006) Deep Time of the Media: Toward an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means, Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press

Zylinska, Joanna (eds) (2002) The Cyborg Experiments: The Extensions of the Body in the Media Age, London and New York: Continuum

Rethinking Museums and Memorials and Spectatorship/Participation

Arnold-de Simine, Silke (2013) Mediating Memory in the Museum: Trauma, Empathy, Nostalgia, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Hansen-Glucklich, Jennifer (2014) Holocaust Memory Reframed: Museums and the Challenges of Representation, New Bunswick and New Jersey: Rutgers University Press

Griffiths, Alison (2013) Shive Down Your Spine: Cinema, Museums and the Immersive View. New York: Columbia Press

Grau, Oliver, Wendy Coones and Viola Rühse (Ed) (2017) Museum and Archive on the Move: Changing Cultural Institutions in the Digital Era, Göttingen: De Gruyer

Kidd, Jenny (2014) Museums in the New Media Landscape: Transmedia, Participation, Ethics, Farnham, UK and Burlington, US: Ashgate.

Landsberg, Alison (2004) Prosthetic Memory: The Transformation of American Remembrance in the Age of Mass Culture, New York: Columbia University Press

Nora, Pierre (1989) ‘Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Mémoire, Representations 26, pp. 7-24

Parry, Ross (Ed) (2010) Museums in a Digital Age, London and New York: Routledge

Parry, Ross (2007) Recoding the Museum: Digital Heritage and the Technologies of Change, London and New York: Routledge

Simon, Nina (2010) The Participatory Museum, Santa Cruz: MUSEUM

Van Alphen, Ernst (2001) ‘Playing the Holocaust’, Mirroring Evil ed. Norman L. Kleeblatt, New York: Jewish Museum, pp. 65-83.

Young, James (1993) The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. New Haven and London: Yale University Press

Young, James (2000) ‘David Levinthals’ Mein Kampf: History, Toys, and the Play of Memory’, in At Memory’s Edge: After-Images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Games Studies

Aarseth, Espen (1997) Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Press

Alphen, E.J. van (2015) ‘Playing the Holocaust and Playing with the Holocaust’. In: Holocaust Fiktion. Kunst jenseits der Auhentizitaet, pp. 151-62. Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink.

Atkins, Barry and Tanya Krzywinska (eds.) (2007) Videogame, Player, Text, Manchester: Manchester University Press

Avedon, Elliott M. and Brian Sutton-Smith (1971) The Study of Games, New York and London: John Wiley and Sons

Bjork, Staffan and Jussi Holopainen (2003) ‘Describing Games: An Interaction-Centric Structural Framework’, in Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings. Utrecht: DiGRA and University of Utrecht

Calleja, Gordon (2011) In-Game: From Immersion to Incorporation, Cambridge Mass and London: MIT Press

Calliois, Roger (1958/2001) Man, Play and Games, Champaign: University of Illinois Press

Dovey, John and Helen W. Kennedy (2006) Games Cultures: Computer Games as New Media, Maidenhead: Open University Press

Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon, Jonas Heide Smith, and Susana Pajares Tosca (2020) Understanding Video Games: Essential Introduction Fourth Edition, London: Routledge

Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture

Fine, Gary Alan (1983) Shared Fantasy: Role-Playing Games as Social Worlds, Chicago and London: Chicago University Press

Fogu, Claudio (2009) ‘Digitalizing Historical Consciousness’, History and Theory 48 (2): 103-21

Friedl, Markus (2003) Online Game Interactivity Theory, Hingham, MA: Charles River Media

Games and Culture Journal

Games Studies Journal

Gosney, John W. (2005) Beyond Reality: A Guide to Alternative Reality Gaming, Boston, MA: Thomas Course Technology

Huizinga, Johan (1938/1971) Homo Ludens. A Study of the Play-Element in Culture, Boston: Beacon Press

JMIR Serious Games Journal

Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, Volume 13, Issue 4, December 2020

King, Geoff and Tanya Krzywinska (eds.) (2002) Screenplay: Cinema/ Videogames/Interfaces, London: Wallflower Press

Loading Journal

Lorber, Martin and Felix Zimmerman (eds.) (2020) History in Games: Contingencies of an Authentic Past. Koeln: Transcript

Mayra, Frans (2008) An Introduction to Games Studies: Games in Culture, Los Angeles: Sage Publications

Mortensen, Torill Elvira (2009) Percieving Play: The Art and Study of Computer Games, New York: Peter Lang

Mukherjee, Souvik (2015) Video Games and Storytelling: Reading Games and Playing Books, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Paley, Vivian Gussin (2004) A Child’s Work: The Importance of Fantasy Play, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Prensky, Marc (2001) Digital Game-Based Learning, New York: McGraw-Hill

Raessens, Joost and Jeffrey Goldstein (eds.) (2005) Handbook of Computer Game Studies, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press

Reinhard, Andrew (2018) Archaeogaming: An Introduction to Archaeology in and of video games, London and New York: Berghahn

Sabin, Philip (2014) Simulating War: Studying Conflict through Simulation Games, London and New York: Bloomsbury

Smith, Peter K. (ed.) (1984) Play in Animals and Humans, Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell

Suter, Beat, Mela Kocher and Rene Bauer (eds.) (2018) Games and Rules: Game Mechanics for the “Magic Circle”, Koeln: Transcript

Sutton-Smith, Brian (1997) Ambiguity of Play, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Wolf, Mark J.P. (ed.) (2001) The Medium of the Video Game, Austin, University of Texas

Wolf, Mark J.P. and Bernard Perron (2003) The Video Game Theory Reader, London and New York: Routledge 

Wolf, Mark J.P. and Bernard Perron (2009) The Video Game Theory Reader 2, London and New York: Routledge 

Immersion and Interactivity (including Participation)

Andrejevic, M. (2016) ‘The Pacification of Interactivity’. In:D. Barney et al. (eds) The Participatory Condition in the Digital Age, pp. 187-206. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Azuma, Ronald (1997) ‘A Survey of Augmented Reality’, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6 (4): 355-85

Barney, D. et al. (2016) ‘The Participatory Condition: An Introduction’. In: The Participatory Condition, pp. vii-xxxix. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press

Baudrillard, Jean (1988/1994) Simulacra and Simulation, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Baym, Nancy K. (1995) ‘The Emergence of Community in Computer-Mediated Communication’, Cybersociety, edited by Steven G. Jones. Newbury, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 138-63

Byerly, Alison (2012) Are We There Yet?: Virtual Travel and Victorian Realism, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Cameron, A. (1995) ‘Dissimulation: The Illusion of Interactivity’, Millennium Film Journal: 33-4

Carpentier, N. “Power as Participation’s Master Signifier.” In The Participatory Condition, edited by D. Barney et al., 3-20. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press

Castells, M. (2005) “The Network Society: from Knowledge to Policy.” In The Network Society: From Knowledge to Policy, edited by M. Castells and G. Cardoso, 3-22. Washington DC: Centre for Transatlantic Relations, the John Hopkins University

Carter, D. (1997) ‘Digital Democracy or Information Aristocracy? Economic Regeneration and the Information Economy’. In: B. D. Loader (ed.) The Governance of Cyberspace: Politics, Technology and Global Restructuring, pp. 136-54. London: Routledge

Cherny, Lynn (1999) Conversation and Community: Chat in a Virtual World, Standford, CA: CSLI Publications

Crawford, K., and T. Paglen. Excavating AI: The Politics of Images in Machine Learning Training Sets excavating.ai, 2019

Daniels, J. “The Algorithmic Rise of the ‘alt-right’”, Contexts 17, iss.1 (2018): 60-5

Dean, J. (2003) ‘Why the Net is not a Public Sphere’, Constellations 10 (1): 95-112

Dean, J. “Communicative Capitalism: Circulation and the Foreclosure of Politics,” Cultural Politics 1, iss. 1 (2005): 51-74

Deuze, M. “Media Life,” Media, Culture and Society 33, iss. 1 (2011): 137-48

D’Ignazio, C., and L.F. Klein. Data Feminism. Cambridge, Mass and London: MIT Press, 2020

Erkström, A., S. Jülich, F. Lundgren and P. Wisselgren (2011) ‘Participatory Media in Historical Perspective: An Introduction’. In: History of Participatory Media: Politics and Publics, 1750-2000, pp. 1-9. New York and London: Routledge

Frasco, Gonzalo (2001) ‘Simulation 101: Simulation versus Representation’

Gauntlett, D. Making Media Studies: The Creativity Turn in Media and Communication Studies. New York: Peter Lang, 2015

Gitelman, Lisa (2006) ‘Introduction: Media as Historical Subjects’, in Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture, Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press

Grau, Oliver (2002) Virtual Art: from Illusion to Immersion, Cambridge MA: The MIT Press

Griffiths, A. (2008) Shivers Down Your Spine: Cinema, Museums, and the Immersive View, New York: Columbia University Press

Habermas, J. (1964) ‘The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article, New German Critique 3: 49-55

Held and Durlach (1992) ‘Telepresence’, Presence 1 (1): 109-112

Huhtamo, E (2000) ‘From Cybernation to Interaction: A Contribution to an Archaeology of Interactivity’. In: P. Lunenfeld (ed) The Digital Dialectics, pp. 96-111. Cambridge Mass and London: The MIT Press

Huhtamo, E (2017) ‘Museums, Interactivity, and the Tasks of “Exhibiting Anthropology”’. In: O. Grau, W. Coones and V. Rühse (eds.) Museum and Archive on the Move: Changing Cultural Institutions in the Digital Age, pp. 65-82. Berlin: De Gruyter

Ijsselsteijn, W. and G. Riva (2003) Being There: Concepts, Effects and Measurements of User Presence in Synthetic Environments, Amsterdam: Ios Press

Jenkins, H. (2006) Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, New York and London: New York University Press

Jenkins, H., S. Ford and J. Green (2013) Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture, New York: New York University Press

Kelty, C. M (2013) ‘From Participation to Power’. In: A. Delwiche and J. J. Henderson (eds.) The Participatory Cultures Handbook, pp. 22-32. New York and London: Routledge

Lister, M. et al. (2009) ‘Immersion: A History’. In: New Media: A Critical Introduction (Second Edition), pp. 114-123. London and New York: Routledge

Massanari, A. “#Gamergate and The Fappening: How Reddit’s algorithms, governance, and culture support toxic technocultures,” New Media and Society 19, iss. 3 (2015): 329-46

McGonigal, Jane (2003) ‘This is not a Game’: Immersive Aesthetics and Collective Play’

McManhan, Alision (2003) ‘Immersion, Engagement, and Presence: A Method for Analyzing 3-D Video Games’, in The Video Game Theory Reader edited by Mark J. P. Wolf and Bernard Perron. New York: Routledge

Minsky, M. (1980) ‘Telepresence’, Omni Magazine

Mitschke, S. (2016) ‘The Sacred, the Profane, and the Space In Between: Site-specific Performance at Auschwitz, Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History 22 (2-3): 228-43

Murray, Janet H. (1997) Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace, Cambridge, Mass and London: MIT Press

Myers, David (2003) ‘The Anti-Poetic: Interactivity, Immersion, and Other Semiotic Functions of Digital Play’, COSIGN 2004 Conference Proceedings

Nagle, A. Kill All Normies. London: Zero Books, 2017

Nell, V. (1988) Lost in a Book: The Psychology of Reading for Pleasure, New Haven: Yale University Press

Nelson-Field, K. The Attention Economy and How Media Works: Simple Truths for Marketers. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

Noble, S.U. Algorithms of Oppression. New York: New York University Press, 2018

Papacharissi, Z. Affective publics: sentiment, technology, and politics. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2015

Papacharissi, Z. “The virtual sphere 2.0: The internet, the public sphere, and beyond.” In Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics edited by A. Chadwick and P.N. Howard, 216-32. London: Routledge, 2008

Pateman, C. (1970) Participation and Democratic Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Popescu, D. I and T. Schult (2019) ‘Performative Holocaust Commemoration in the 21st Century’, Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History 26 (2): 135-51

Ryan, Marie-Laure (2001) Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press

Ryan, Marie-Laure (2001) Narrative as Virtual Reality 2: Revisiting Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press

Sorochan, C. (2016) ‘Participation as Ideology in Occupy Wall Street’. In: D. Barney et al. (eds.) The Participatory Condition in the Digital Age, pp. 21-42. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Taylor, P. A (2013) ‘Participation and the Technological Imaginary: Interactivity or Interpassivity’. In: A. Delwiche and J. J. Henderson (eds) The Participatory Cultures Handbook, pp. 247-56. New York and London: Routledge

Terranova, T. “Free labour: producing culture for the digital economy,” Social Text 18, iss. 2 (2000): 33-58

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